Discourse Markers – although/even though

I recently used  the below tables as a reference when discussing discourse markers with some of my students in Budapest.

When we want to say something positive and something negative in the same sentence, we can use one of the following forms:

Although and even though have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.

although/ even though

subject

verb

subject + verb

Although

I

am poor,

I am happy.

Although

they

played well,

they lost.

Even though

she

was tired,

she went out.

Even though

he

eats a lot,

he is thin.

Though is more informal and we use it more in conversation than written English.

I’m poor. I’m happy though.

They lost. They played well though.

She was tired. She went out though.

He’s thin. He eats a lot though.

In spite of and despite have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.

despite/ in spite of

-ing form

subject + verb

Despite

being poor

I am happy.

Despite

playing well

they lost.

In spite of

being tired

she went out.

In spite of

eating a lot

he is thin.

despite/ in spite of

the fact (that)

subject

verb

subject + verb

Despite

the fact that

I

am poor,

I am happy.

Despite

the fact

they

played well,

they lost.

In spite of

the fact that

she

was tired,

she went out.

In spite of

the fact that

he

eats a lot,

he is thin.

This form is less common but possible:

despite/ in spite of

noun

subject + verb

Despite

my poverty,

I am happy.

Despite

their good play,

they lost.

In spite of

her tiredness,

she went out.

In spite of

his great appetite,

he is thin.

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